Chapter 5

St. Francis Prep.

Nutrition - Mrs. Turner

Explain the following terms-

-sugar free

-no added sugar

-reduced sugar






-insoluble fiber-





1 gram of carbohydrates = 4 calories

sugar substitutes (nutrasweet, saccharin, splenda)

sugar alcohols (maltitol, mannitol, sorbitol, xylitol)


digestion - absorption does not take long (mouth & small intestine)


Lactose intolerance



Indigestible Carbohydrates

dietary fiber-

functions of dietary fiber-

insoluble fiber-

soluble fiber-

diverticular disease-

-explain how diet may play a role in decreasing cancer and heart disease


-explain how fiber may interfere with absorption of nutrients


-recommended intake of dietary fiber

Getting the Scoop on


by Cindy Maynard, M.S., R.D.

When it comes to sugar , most of us operate on three taste preferences: sweet, sweeter, sweetest. What is all this added sugar doing to us? Have we developed an addiction to sweetness? Some argue that the yummy stuff is the catalyst that makes life pleasurable. A meal is not finished without it.
Critics say it represents empty calories and is responsible for a host of medical woes, including obesity, tooth decay, hyperactivity, and diabetes. What is the truth? To find out, let's take a look at what sugar is, how the body uses it, and the latest news in medical research.
But first, see how well you can separate sugar myths from

Test Your Sugar Sense:

1. What is a slang word for sweetheart, a word used as a term of endearment?
2. Which contains a greater percentage of sugar: catsup or ice cream?
3. Honey and brown sugar are more nutritious than table sugar: True or False?
4. A "fruit-juice-sweetened" cookie is less apt to contribute to tooth decay than a cookie sweetened with refined white sugar: True or False?
5. The food that sticks to the teeth the longest is:
a. a handful of raisins
b. a chocolate-caramel bar
c. crackers
6. Sugarless gum won't hurt your teeth, but it won't help, either: True or false?
7. If a person eats too much sugar, he or she will get diabetes: True or False?
8. The average 12-oz can of cola contains about 9 teaspoons of sugar in the form of high-fructose corn syrup: True or False?


1. Sugar
2. Surprise. Catsup is approximately 29 percent sugar compared to 21 percent for the ice cream.
3. False. There really isn't a big difference nutritionally between honey, brown sugar, and table sugar (sucrose). The trace amounts of nutrients in brown sugar and honey are insignificant. 4. False. Any sugar added to food in a concentrated form can help cavities develop.
5. c. crackers. Newer research shows that the major clingers are not sugary foods, but starchy items like crackers, cereals, and pretzels.
6. At the University of Iowa's College of Dentistry, scientists found that when people chewed sticks of sugarless gum after eating sugary foods, their acid levels fell within 10 minutes. The gum
stimulated flow of saliva, which clears food particles from the mouth and also neutralizes the destructive acid.
7. False. For someone with a blood sugar disorder, sugar can
aggravate the situation if intake isn't regulated. But the substance itself does not cause the disease.
8. True.

How Sweet It Is
Americans consume the equivalent of 20 to 30 teaspoons of sugar a day or about 100 to 128 pounds a year. Half of that comes from hidden sources such as crackers, bottled salad dressings, soy sauce, packaged side dishes, peanut butter, and sweetened cereals. The other half comes from the sugar bowl.

Sugar, Sugar, Everywhere

  • Brown Sugar results from mixing white sugar crystals with molasses.
  • Dextrose is a sugar derived from starch, corn syrup, or grape sugar (liquid dextrose).
  • Fructose, known as fruit sugar, is a monosaccharide found in fruit, molasses, and honey. It is 1 Y2 times as sweet as sucrose, but provides the same number of calories.
  • Glucose is the primary fuel for body cells and is found in fruits, honey, some vegetables, and corn syrup. All sugars and carbohydrates are eventually broken down into glucose in the blood.
  • Honey contains fructose and glucose, plus a small amount of sucrose. It is more concentrated than sucrose.
  • Lactose is known as milk sugar. It is made up of glucose and galactose (the carbohydrate in milk or yogurt).
  • Maltose is called malt sugar, which is made up of two units of glucose.
  • Molasses is the syrup that separates from raw sugar when it's processed into sucrose. Blackstrap molasses is the final molasses in the process and has the highest concentration of nutrients.
  • Sorbitol is a sugar alcohol used in products such as candies and chewing gum. It is 60 per- cent as sweet as sucrose and provides 2.6 calories per gram.
  • Sucrose or table sugar is refined from cane or beet. It is made up of two simple sugars: glucose and fructose.
  • Xylitol is a sweetener found in plants and used as a substitute for sugar. It is called a nutritive sweetener because it provides calories, just like sugar.

Chemically, all sugars are pretty much created equal. They are carbohydrates that function as ' the primary energy source for our bodies. Carbohydrate foods are classified as simple or complex carbohydrates mono and disaccharides are grouped together as "simple," and polysaccharides are "complex." Simple sugars-such as table sugar, jams, jellies, and honey-deliver energy to the body quicker because they can be broken down easier than polysaccharides.

Complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), on the other hand, are made up of hundreds or thousands of linked monosaccharides and come from plants such as grains, rice, corn, vegetables, fruits, beans, and cereals. Complex carbohydrates are a concentrated calorie source and are broken down into simple sugars for energy. (See "Sugar, Sugar Everywhere," page 22.)

All sugars are carbohydrates and provide 4 calories per gram. So, what's the difference? Nutrition. Complex carbohydrates supply vitamins, minerals, and fiber you can't get elsewhere. Refined sugars supply energy (calories), but no nutrients e

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