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1/4 Final Exam Update: Our Final Exam for the course will be taken in class on Tuesday, January 15.  The exam makeup 20% of your overall grade for the semester.  An outline will be posted with topics for the test.  We will also have a day of in class review before the final.  Extra help outside of class is available upon request.


Here is the outline for the final:

Final Exam Information and Outline

Philosophy

- What philosophy is and why it is important to study


Objectivism and Subjectivism

- Definition of both positions

- Implications of how following one of the theories could affect a ?person's views on love and beauty   


Love

- Plato, Montaigne, CS Lewis' theories on love


Epistemology - the study of knowledge and how we come to know information.

- Empiricism, Pragmatism, Rationalism


Deductive reasoning vs Inductive reasoning


Ethical Philosophies

- Humanism, Skepticism, Hedonism, Stoicism, Immanuel Kant and the Categorical Imperative

- Socrates and Aristotle's positions on ethics


Christian Ethical Philosophies

- Teleology (Consequentialism), Deontology, Virtue Ethics

- The Trolley Problem 


Existence of Evil

- Christian teaching on evil from the Article the Problem of Evil

- Views of evil and hell from John Milton's Paradise Lost and Dante's Divine Comedy

- St. Augustine's views on evil and how it differs from the traditional 2 reasons of evil: 1) Ignorance and 2) Compulsion

St. Augustine's 3 Steps of the process of evil

* Also make sure you know the two articles we read called “Taking up your Cross” and “The Problem of Evil” which explain the Christian ideas on suffering.


Ontological Question: Does God exist

- Religious Skepticism theory on why God doesn't exist

- St. Augustine and Thomas Aquinas positions for the existence of God.

- Schleiermacher's absolute dependence position on why God exists.

- Near Death Experience Article.  What happened to Dr. Alexander and how did it change his perspective?


- Plato's Cave Theory: What is the point that this theory is trying to make?


Eastern Philosophy

- Understand the general differences in focus between Eastern and ?Western philosophies.


Buddhism

- Understand the four noble truths and the goal of the Eightfold Path.  (You do not need to memorize the Eightfold Path.

- Understand Buddhist teachings on suffering

- Vocab: Nirvana, Buddha-nature, interconnectedness, ?impermanence, Karma 


Confucianism

- Know the main teachings

- Vocab: filial piety and meritocracy.


Daoism

Know the main teachings

- Understand the Doctrine of inaction


1/4 Update: Our next quiz on Eastern Philosophies (Buddhism, Confucianism, and Daoism) will be on the following days:

A Period: Friday, January 11

F Period: Thursday, January 10

Here is an outline of topics that you will need to know for the quiz:

Philosophy Quiz - Eastern Philosophies

- Understand the general differences in focus between Eastern ?and Western philosophies.

Buddhism

- Understand the four noble truths and the goal of the Eightfold Path.  (You do not need to memorize the Eightfold Path.

- Understand Buddhist teachings on suffering and what causes this in life.

- Know that Buddhism says to choose one spiritual path to commit to and to stick with that path.

- Know the following terms: Nirvana, Buddha-nature, interconnectedness, impermanence, Karma 

Confucianism

- Know the basic teachings on what human beings need in order ?to live good moral lives and the importance of virtue.

- Understand Confucian teaching on the five relationships being ?central to good living.

- Understand the importance of rituals and ceremonies.

- Confucian teaching on filial piety and meritocracy.

Daoism

- Encourages the virtues of moderation and balance.

- It teaches the importance to recognize the connection between the mind and body.  You need to have time for physical exercise and meditation.

- Emphasizes unity with nature and living simply.

- Suffering is caused when people struggle against their circumstances.

- Understand the Doctrine of inaction


12/4 Test Update: On Thursday, December 6 we will be having our next test on evil and the existence of God.  Below is an outline of topics that will be on the test.

Philosophy Test on Evil and Existence of God Outline

Existence of Evil

- Christian teaching on evil from the Article the Problem of Evil

- Views of evil and hell from John Milton's Paradise Lost and ?Dante's Divine Comedy

- St. Augustine's views on evil and how it differs from the ?traditional 2 reasons of evil: 1) Ignorance and 2) Compulsion


The Ontological Argument: The question of the existence of God

- Know the evidence against the existence of God (Atheistic ?position)

- Religious skepticism theory.

- Evidence for the existence of God: St. Augustine and Thomas ?Aquinas' contributions.

- Pascal Wager Theory

- Schleiermacher's explanation for the existence of God

Near Death Experience Article

- Know why Dr. Alexander's case was unique

- Know the main messages he took away from his experience and how it changed his life.

- Crumbling castle metaphor showing how people resist change with scientific theories.


11/27 Update:

Questions for Near Death Experience Article

1.What makes Dr. Alexander’s near death experience such a unique case?

2.How did Dr. Alexander feel about religion (Christianity) before his illness?

3.What was the main message that the creatures Dr. Alexander saw in his near death experience gave to him?

4.What did Dr. Alexander come to understand about the universe now following his experience?

5.On the last page of the article (32), Dr. Alexander uses a metaphor about a castle to make a point.  What is the point that he is trying to make?

6.Once Dr. Alexander returned to Church following his experience, how did he start to see things differently?

7.At one point in the article, Dr. Alexander says “Today many believe that the living spiritual truths of religion have lost their power, and that science, not faith is the road to truth.”  Do you agree with Dr. Alexander that science has affected religion in a negative way, why or why not?

8.How are the fields of science and religion both different from each other?

9.What is one way that you think that the fields of science and religion can work together cooperatively to help us understand new ideas?

10.What do you make of Dr. Alexander’s experience?  Do you think he had a powerful near death experience or was it something else, why or why not?

11/15 Update: 

Good and Evil Assignment


Directions: We have looked at a number of different ideas about evil and hell from Christian tradition.  On a sheet of paper, I want you to draw or write about and describe two scenes.  First, draw your personal version of what evil/hell is.  Next, draw what your personal version of goodness/heaven is.  


After you complete your drawing or description please answer the following questions:

1) Describe the scene you drew about your version of evil/hell.  Why do you think this what evil is about?

2) Describe the scene you drew about your version of goodness/heaven.  Why do you think this is what goodness is about?

3) Which ideas about evil from Christian tradition do you agree with?  

4) What do you think is so attractive about evil that really draws people to it?

5) What do you think is the solution to the problem of evil?  Although we will probably never get rid of evil altogether, what can people do to reduce evil in the world?


11/14 Update: Our next assignment called "Ethics Reflection" in our files section is due in class on Tuesday, November 20.  The assignment can be either typed or written.


10/29 HW Update: Our next assignment called "The Problem of Evil Article" in our files section will be due in class on Monday, November 5th.  Make sure you have answered the ten questions at the end of the article.


Outline for Test Wednesday, October 31


Ship Dilemma – What is the dilemma raising questions about?


Being a person:

- John Locke’s definition

- Dictionary meaning

- Why does it matter to consider someone or something a person?


Ethics

Know the difference between the two:

Ethics – Literally means “habit or custom” in Greek.  It’s the field of philosophy that studies how people can live a good and happy life 

Meta- ethics – subfield of ethics that studies what does it mean to be right 


Contributions of the Greek Philosophers:

Socrates – Knowledge based approach toward ethics

Aristotle – Virtue Ethics Theory


Christian Ethical Philosophies

- Consequentialism (Teleology)

- Deontology

- The Trolley Problem and how these different theories apply to the example

 

Alternative Ethical Philosophies

For each of the following philosophies, make sure you can identify the following:

  1. The main principle of each philosophy
  2. Where we can find evidence of each philosophy
  3. A potential strength and weakness of each philosophical view.

- Humanism

- Skepticism

- Utilitarianism/Hedonism – Principle of Utility

- Stoicism

- Immanuel Kant and the Categorical Imperative


10/24 Update: Journal Questions 

A Period: Friday, October 27

F Period: Wednesday, October 25

1) What do you think are the most significant problems that teens face today?

2) What is one challenge that you have faced?  How did you deal with it?

3) Do you agree with Roy, that the one of the most important things for teens to feel is that they matter to others?  Why do you agree or disagree?

4) Who is one person that gives you attention that makes you feel good about yourself?  How do they show you that you matter to them?


10/17 Update: Use the file called "Alternative Ethical Theory Notes" to complete the following assignment:

For each one of the 5 ethical theories, complete the following questions:  Overall you should have 20 individual answers, 4 for each theory.

1) How would this philosophical world view look today - meaning what lifestyle might a person have with this view?  

2) Where do you evidence of people having this perspective?

3) For each philosophy give an example of an ethical problem a person could experience by following this philosophy.

4) What is an ethical issue or problem that each philosophy could help someone to deal with in a positive way?


10/15 Update: Are next assignment called the "Trolley Problem" in our files section is due in class on Wednesday, October 17.


9/26 Update: We will be having a quiz next week on Wednesday, October 3rd.  below is an outline for the quiz:

Philosophy Quiz 1 Outline

Philosophy

- What philosophy is and why it is important to study

Objectivism and Subjectivism

- Definition of both positions

- Implications of how following one of the theories could affect a ?person's views on love and beauty   


Love

- Plato's understanding of love

- Montaigne's understanding of love

- CS Lewis' 4 different kinds of love


Epistemology - the study of knowledge and how we come to know information.

- Empiricism

- Pragmatism

- Rationalism

Deductive reasoning vs Inductive reasoning

- How both methods help us to acquire knowledge

- Different views on Knowledge and Ignorance


9/19 Update: Our first homework assignment for class called "Philosophical Profile" can be found in the files section.  The assignment will be due in class next week on Wednesday, September 26.  The assignment needs to handed in and NOT emailed.


9/12 Update: For our dialogue called "The Photograph," please click on the link for "Photograph Dialogue" in our files section.


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